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Definition of aviation accident, serious incident and incident

Definition of Accident

An accident means an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked; or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the propulsion is shut down, in which: 

  1. there is fatality or serious injury* as a result of 
    1. being in the aircraft;
    2. direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft; or
    3. direct exposure to jet blast, except where the injuries arise from natural causes, are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or where the person injured is a stowaway hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or
  2. the aircraft sustains damage and/or structural failure which: 
    1. adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and
    2. would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, but excludes engine failure or damage when the damage is limited to a single engine (including its cowlings or accessories) or to propellers, wing tips, antennas, probes, vanes, tyres, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors, windscreens or the aircraft skin (such as small dents or puncture holes); minor damage to main rotor blades, tail rotor blades, landing gear; and minor damage resulting from hail or bird strike (including holes in the radome); or
  3. the aircraft is missing or completely inaccessible. 

 

*Definition of Serious Injury

A serious injury means an injury which:

  1. requires hospitalisation for a period of more than 48 hours; such period commencing within 7 days from the date of the injury;
  2. results in a fracture of any bone other than a simple fracture of any finger, toe or the nose;
  3. involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage;
  4. involves injury/trauma to any internal organ;
  5. involves second or third degree burns or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

 

Definition of Serious Incident

An incident involving circumstances indicating that there was a high probability of an accident and associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time as it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down. Examples include:

  1. A near collision requiring an avoidance manoeuvre to avoid a collision, or an unsafe situation or where an avoidance action would have been appropriate.
  2. A collision between aircraft, or involving an aircraft, that is not classified as an accident.
  3. A controlled flight into terrain only marginally avoided.
  4. An aborted take-off on -
    1. a closed or engaged runway;
    2. an unassigned runway; or
    3. a taxiway (excluding any aborted take-off by a helicopter, which take-off had been authorised by the aerodrome operator and the aerodrome control tower).
  5. A take-off from -
    1. a closed or engaged runway;
    2. an unassigned runway; or
    3. a taxiway (excluding any take-off by a helicopter that is authorised by the aerodrome operator and the aerodrome control tower).
  6. A landing or an attempted landing on -
    1. a closed or engaged runway;
    2. an unassigned runway; or
    3. a taxiway (excluding any landing or attempted landing by a helicopter, which landing had been authorised by the aerodrome operator and the aerodrome control tower).
    4. an unintended landing location such as a roadway.
  7. A gross failure to achieve predicted performance during take-off or initial climb.
  8. Fire or smoke in the cockpit, in the passenger compartment, in the cargo compartment or engine fire, even though such a fire was extinguished by the use of extinguishing agents.
  9. An event requiring the emergency use of oxygen by the flight crew.
  10. An aircraft structural failure or engine disintegration, including uncontained engine failure, not classified as an accident.
  11. Multiple malfunctions of one or more aircraft systems seriously affecting the operation of the aircraft.
  12. Flight crew incapacitation during flight.
  13. A fuel quantity level or distribution situation requiring the declaration of an emergency by the pilot, such as insufficient fuel, fuel exhaustion, fuel starvation or inability to use all usable fuel on board the aircraft.
  14. A take-off or landing incident such as undershooting, overrunning or running off the side of runways.
  15. A system failure, weather phenomenon, an operation outside the approved flight envelope or other occurrence which could have caused difficulties controlling the aircraft.
  16. A failure of more than one system in a redundancy system mandatory for flight guidance or navigation.
  17. A runway incursion in which a collision is narrowly avoided.
  18. The unintentional release, or the intentional release as an emergency measure, of a slung load or any other load carried external to the aircraft.

 

Definition of Incident

An incident means an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of such operation.