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Media Statement by Coordinating Minister for Infrastructure and the Minister for Transport Mr Khaw Boon Wan on Malaysian Intrusions into Singapore Territorial Water

06 Dec 2018 News Releases

1. In 1979, Malaysia published a map (Chart 1) showing the limits of the territorial waters which it claimed. This included its claim on Pedra Branca, as well as on areas at the eastern and western approaches to Singapore. The boundary lines that Malaysia claimed at the western approach to Singapore intruded into the port limits of Singapore. Singapore protested to Malaysia to reject its claim on Pedra Branca. Singapore also stated categorically that these new boundary lines violated Singapore’s sovereignty and were unacceptable to Singapore.

2. Nevertheless, in 1987, Malaysia went on to publish Johor Bahru Port Limits that followed this claimed boundary line. In 1999, they made slight amendments to these port limits. Since then, for twenty years, the 1999 Johor Bahru Port Limits have remained intact (Chart 2). Both the 1987 and the 1999 Johor Bahru Port Limits stayed fully within what Malaysia had since 1979 claimed was their territorial boundary.

3. But on 25 Oct 2018, Malaysia issued Federal Government Gazette P.U. (B) 587 “Declaration of Alteration of Port Limits for Johore Bahru Port”. This unilaterally and arbitrarily extended the Johor Bahru Port Limits (Chart 3). Quite apart from the fact that Singapore has never accepted their 1979 territorial claims, the recent purported extension of the Johor Bahru Port Limits goes beyond what even Malaysia itself claimed as its territorial waters.

4. Since at least 1999, Singapore has been exercising its jurisdiction in the waters now covered by the recent extension of the Johor Bahru Port Limits. We have been patrolling the area regularly, and protested any intrusions or unauthorised activities. Malaysia has never laid claim to these waters, or protested our actions there. Now, out of the blue, Malaysia is claiming these territorial waters that belong to Singapore. Without any prior consultations, Malaysia is seeking to alter unilaterally the long-standing status quo in the area.

5. This is a blatant provocation and a serious violation of our sovereignty and international law.

6. On 5 Nov 2018, Singapore issued a Third Person Note (TPN) via demarche, requesting that Malaysia immediately amend the Federal Government Gazette to reflect the sovereignty of Singapore over these waters. On 9 Nov 2018, I raised this issue with my counterpart Minister Anthony Loke in Bangkok.

7. Despite our protests, Marine Department Malaysia (MMD) went ahead to publish Port Circular No. 88/2018 dated 11 Nov 2018, and Notice to Mariners No. 164/2018 dated 22 Nov 2018. Both documents notify the shipping community of the expanded Johor Bahru Port Limits. These further actions showed that Malaysia had disregarded our earlier TPN. Singapore therefore issued a second TPN via demarche on 29 Nov 2018 to protest the Port Circular and Notice to Mariners.

8. Malaysian Government Vessels have since been continually intruding into Singapore Territorial Waters off Tuas (Chart 4). So far there have been 14 intrusions. Singapore had protested the repeated intrusions via three TPNs.

9. Yesterday (5 Dec 2018), Malaysia issued a media statement arguing that Singapore cannot claim the area as its territorial waters on the basis of its reclamation works in Tuas in recent years. In 1979, when Malaysia published its map, it did not consult Singapore before drawing its territorial claim line. In fact, in 1979 no reclamation at Tuas had taken place. So the Malaysian unilateral territorial claim of 1979 (which we do not recognise) could not possibly have taken into account any reclamation by Singapore. Their new Johor Bahru Port Limits extend beyond Malaysia’s own territorial claim line, and Malaysian ships have crossed this line to enter Singapore waters.

10. Yesterday Malaysia also replied to Singapore’s first TPN issued a month earlier (on 5 Nov 2018). In their reply, Malaysia disagreed that the altered Johor Port Limits had encroached on Singapore Territorial Waters off Tuas, and emphasised that the Malaysian Government Vessels were patrolling the territorial waters of Malaysia.

11. Malaysia’s reply also proposed that officials from the two sides meet to work towards an amicable resolution. Singapore naturally agrees to this and will follow up. It has always been our view, ever since Malaysia published its first map in 1979, that the boundary line in this area can only be settled in accordance with international law and practice, through consultations between the governments involved. Meanwhile, Malaysian Government vessels should cease their intrusions and return to the status quo before 25 Oct 2018.

12. Our security agencies will continue to patrol the area, and respond to unauthorised activities on the ground. They have so far responded with restraint against aggressive actions by the Malaysian Government Vessels. But Singapore cannot allow our sovereignty to be violated, or new facts on the ground to be created. Therefore, if it becomes necessary, we will not hesitate to take firm actions against intrusions and unauthorised activities in our waters to protect our territory and sovereignty.

13. Countries do amend their port limits from time to time. But they must do so in a way that does not contravene international law, or infringe on the sovereignty of another country. Singapore has amended our port limits before. The last time we did was in 1997.

14. In view of these recent provocative developments, we have decided to extend the Singapore Port Limits off Tuas via Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (Port Limits) (Amendment) Notification 2018. This extension (Chart 5) is well within Singapore Territorial Waters, and tracks the eastern boundary of the 1999 Johor Bahru Port Limits. The Gazette takes effect from today.

15. This violation of Singapore’s sovereignty is a serious new issue in our bilateral relations with Malaysia. Singapore seeks friendly relations and close cooperation with Malaysia. Prime Minister Mahathir has just visited Singapore in November, and held fruitful discussions with Prime Minister Lee. PM Lee flagged this issue with PM Mahathir, as one that could affect our bilateral relationship. Unfortunately, further developments since then have made the situation more serious.

16. Our position with Malaysia has always been clear and consistent.

a. We uphold international law and respect bilateral agreements.

b. We will protect and defend Singapore’s territorial sovereignty. Singapore will not hesitate to take firm action against intrusions and unauthorised activities in our waters.

17. I am very saddened by this development. Having been in Government for 40 years, I cannot help feeling a sense of déjà vu.

18. When I discussed the High Speed Rail (HSR) Project with Minister Azmin Ali, I had a distinct feeling that the young Ministers in Malaysia want a fresh relationship with Singapore, without any past baggage. There is so much we can gain working together. I believe the citizens on both sides of the Causeway also expect the younger leadership of both sides to work together for a brighter win-win future. That is why on the HSR Project, we chose not to utilise the full legal extent of the Bilateral Agreement accorded to Singapore. Instead, Singapore worked out an alternative way to allow Malaysia to defer the HSR Project in the spirit of bilateral cooperation.

19. Nevertheless, I remain optimistic. We still seek good bilateral relations, and hope we can work together to find an amicable solution to these issues. But Singaporeans have to be fully aware of these developments. While we seek cooperation and friendship with other countries, we must never let other countries take advantage of us. When our national interests are challenged, we have to quietly but firmly stand our ground and stay united as one people.


Chronology of Key Events since 1979




Malaysia published a map depicting the limits of the territorial waters it claims, including in the areas in the eastern and western approaches to Singapore. This is the same map in which Malaysia claimed Pedra Branca as its own.


Singapore lodged a diplomatic protest with Malaysia over its 1979 map, asserting that the boundary lines indicated in the map in respect of the areas in the eastern and western approaches to Singapore are unacceptable to Singapore, and that Pedra Branca belongs to Singapore.


Malaysia published its Johor Bahru port limits, which tracked the territorial sea limits claimed in its 1979 map.


Singapore and Malaysia concluded the 1995 Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the Government of the Republic of Singapore to Delimit Precisely the Territorial Waters Boundary in Accordance with the Straits Settlements and Johore Territorial Waters Agreement 1927.


Singapore’s port limits to the west of Raffles Lighthouse were extended slightly for better regulation of shipping traffic in the vicinity.


Malaysia published its amended Johor Bahru port limits, which still tracked the territorial sea limits claimed in its 1979 map.


Malaysia published altered Johor Bahru port limits, which encroach into Singapore’s territorial waters off Tuas. The altered port limits extend significantly eastwardbeyondthe territorial sea claim in the area made in Malaysia’s 1979 map.

ANNEX- Charts (PDF, 1.04 MB)
ANNEX B - Chart (PDF, 197.19 KB)